Montessori Method of Education
Montessori Method of education is a scientific method of teaching that focuses of educating children through direct control of their environment. It uses materials to stimulate a child’s senses, which makes the learning experience more memorable. The Montessori method is a progression of learning beginning with activities in Practical Life and the Sensorial, activities that internalize independence, coordination (mastering the small and gross motor skills), concentration and order, which in turn help a child to transition to more abstract learning in culture, Math and Language.
Montessori curriculum includes materials in Practical Life to enhance motor skills through daily functions, gain independence and adapt to the society. Practical Life Exercises can be categorized into four different groups: Preliminary Applications, Applied Applications, Grace and Courtesy, and Control of Moment. In the Preliminary Exercises, the child learns the basic movements of all societies such as pouring, folding, and carrying. In the Applied Exercises, the child learns about the care and maintenance that helps everyday life. These activities are, for example, the care of the person (i.e. the washing of the hand) and the care of the environment (i.e. dusting a table or outdoor sweeping).In the Grace and Courtesy Exercises, the children work on the interactions of people to people. In the Control of Movement Exercises, the child learns about his own movements and learns how to refine his coordination through such activities as walking on the line.
Sensorial to allow children to refine and organize their sensory perceptions. By working with sensorial materials, children learn to develop sensory impressions of the world around them. The purpose and aim of Sensorial work is for the child to acquire clear, conscious, information and to be able to then make classifications in his environment. Montessori believed that sensorial experiences began at birth. Through his senses, the child studies his environment. Through this study, the child then begins to understand his environment. The child, to Montessori, is a “sensorial explorer”.
Through work with the sensorial materials, the child is given the keys to classifying the things around him, which leads to the child making his own experiences in his environment. Through the classification, the child is also offered the first steps in organizing his intelligence, which then leads to his adapting to his environment.
Mathematics apparatus, which helps children understand mathematical functions in concrete form. Arithmetic deals with shape, space, numbers, and their relationships and attributes by the use of numbers and symbols. It is a study of the science of pattern and includes patterns of all kinds, such as numerical patterns, abstract patterns, patterns of shape and motion. In the Montessori classroom, five families with math are presented to the child: arithmetic, geometry, statistics and calculus. More precisely, the concepts covered in the Primary class are numeration, the decimal system, computation, the arithmetic tables, whole numbers, fractions, and positive numbers.
Humans have a tendency to communicate. In order to master a language the child needs to be spoken to and listened to it often. The child will need a broad exposure to language, with correct articulation, enunciation, and punctuation. The child will need to experience different modes of language and to hear and tell stories. Most importantly, the child needs to feel free and be encouraged to communicate with others. While working in a Montessori classroom the child gets the exposure to the language being spoken in the environment through News period, General Conversation, Story Time. Language materials and sound games help the child to understand that the words are made up of articulate sounds and each sound has a symbol that represents it. By learning the sounds and symbols of the spoken language the child is gradually guided through to analyze phonetic words and later read them.